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Choquequirao


Location  

The Archaeological Group of Choquequirao is located geographically in the South Latitude 13° 32', Longitude West 72° 44', starting from the Meridian of Grenwich. Their altitude reaches the 3,033 m.a.s.l. politically, it is located in the jurisdiction of Santa Teresa en La Convención Department of the Cusco. The monument is in the ecological floor of forest brow, area of life dry forest, montano, sub-tropical.

 

Climate 

Each year average: 16° C.   

 

Relief  

It is characterized by a rural and unstable topography, the same that generates limitations for their accessibility from the nearest populated centers located to more than 30 Km. of another part, the geologic conditions and the characteristics of the paths, they hinder the integration from the Group to the tourist activity.

 

Accesses  

Access from the populated centers of Cachora, Huanipaca, Huancacalle, Santa Teresa and Mollepata, by pedestrian roads, going by the ecological floors of low puna, high puna and the Salqantay.  

 

Services  

To be a circuit of rigorous adventure, in the one in route to Choquequirao is not hotels neither harbor. However, ideal areas exist in order to camp, although they don't have basic services.  

The place of Chiquisca, the beach Rosalinda (there is a cabin for the travelers) and Marampata, is appropriate to arm the tents and to put the bags of sleeping. In the one in route to Choquequirao the stars are not in the facades of the hotels, but rather they are in the sky, looking after the dream of the travelers.   

In the town of Cachora rustic inns exist that can serve to plan the adventure (to rent donkeys and horses, to make the last purchases, etc.) or to recover forces after the long one to bustle of four days.

 

Antecedents  

Choquequírao was refuge of those denominated "Last Incas of Vilcabamba" or Inca of the Resistance that were located in the area starting from 1536, directed by Manco Inca and his brother Inca Paullo, children of the Inca Waskar.  

To the death of the Inca, Sayri Túpac assumed the control  who made a pact with the Spaniards the exit toward the Cusco. The last emperor of the Inca dynasty of the Cusco was you Tupac Amaru I, who continued occupying the area of Vilcabamba, in a period of permanent fight with the Spaniards. The conquering troops entered to Vilcabamba June 24th of 1,572 capturing the Inca after successive wars; the 21 of September the Inca prisoner was entered to the city of  Cusco under the attentive look of his relatives and governed. After a summary trial, directed by the Viceroy Francisco de Toledo, the Inca was executed September of the same year. Choquequirao was abandoned by the Inca after being set on fire by its own residents.

After the wars of the American Independence, taken place during the first decades of the 1,800, it was frequent to see in the cities and populated centers of the coast and the mountain to foreign characters and Peruvians interested in being informed on the prehispanic cultures. These first visitors later on were qualified as travelers.  

In 1834, the French Eugene de Sartiges arrived to Choquequirao entering for the current town of Santa Teresa with the help of the peons of the country property Huadquiña; another character was the Consul Francés in Lima, Léonce Angrand who in 1,847, designed with pencil the constructions and spaces of the main square.

The Inca Museum of the Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco has a copy of the Map of the Department of the Cusco, made by Emilio Colpaert and published in 1,865 by a French publisher, in that document aims the location of Choquequirao and the pedestrian roads that were stolen by muleteers of the time.  

It is important to mention the exploration works and topographical registrations that Don Benign J. made Samanez Ocampo in the year 1884, in one of its trips toward the valleys of the rivers Apurimac and Ucayali.

 

Choquequirao in the XX century  

At the beginning of the present century an outstanding interest was presented to discover Inca cities in the forest brow. This way in 1,909, informed by the Prefect of Apurímac, it arrived to the area the North American Historian Hiram Bingham, prior to the scientific discovery of Machu Picchu.  

Another visitor that was in Choquequirao Enrique Bell that makes a short report in 1934; the engineer Cristian Bües in 1,936 elaborated an outline of this area in which Choquequirao appears inside the historical context of Vilcabamba. Along the years 40's and 50's are happened a series of visits, to them they sink that of the personnel of the Patronato Departamental de Cusco in 1966 that was directed by the Dr. Gustavo Alencastre Montúfar and the Anthropologist Fidel Ramos; they began works of elimination of vegetation. To initiative of this same institution the first archaeological delimitation of the place of Choquequirao was made in 1,968, delimitation that was good for its protection during the implementation of the Agrarian Reformation that was implanted starting from 1969.  

The historical and archaeological information, allows to identify to Choquequirao like an Inca city of dispersed sectors in ceja de Selva; it served from political, social headquarters and religious to the descendants of the Inca nobility during the first years of the Spanish occupation.  

 

The archaeological monument of Choquequirao  

The Archaeological Monument of Choquequirao corresponds to an Inca city conformed by several dispersed sectors with diverse functions that communicated with the main square by pedestrian sidewalks. 

The vestiges show that the city suddenly was abandoned; the urban conception follows the theoretical and conceptual drawing of the city of the Cusco, temples, houses, deposits or qolqas, kalankas, ceremonial Ushno , shops, sources and  channels, cultivation andenerías, bedrooms for mitimaes and people in traffic and residence for a permanent population of farmers, distributed in the following well-known sectors: Superior square (Hanan) that Occupies the superior part of the group of the city; for the east side the square is defined by the temple Hanan of two levels next to is located  the entrance of the main channel of water of ceremonial and domestic use that circulates for a vertical channel, two sources Paqcha and platforms (andenes)  that continue toward the sector of the qolqa and the main square; in the west it is framed by a wall railing of half height.

In the south side it is a Kalanka with an alone one vain of access and, at a lightly lower level it is a ceremonial patio and two small roms of a single level separated by a small passageway.  

Deposits or Qolqas. It is conformed by five buildings: two correspond those of more volume and they are of two levels; in the first plant each one of them presents a platform composed by stone flagstones and loamy mud, leaving ventilation ducts in the base; the other ones three are of lengthened rectangular plant of a single level; the adjacent constructions correspond to terraces that are platforms (andenes) for cultivations of ceremonial character, being defined by parallel staggered walls with small niches in the interior adornment, making correspondence to each platform; in the first and last contention walls are remains of a channel that captures waters to drive toward the main channel.

 

The System of Andean Cities  

The Archaeological Group of Choquequirao is part of a system of Andean cities in the context of the Valley of the Vilcabamba, the same one that was conformed by the archaeological groups of Hispanic Ñusta, Vitcos, Spirit Pampas, Concebidayoc, Pampaconas and Jabaspampa, articulated by Inca roads with the Historical Sanctuary of Machu Picchu. The revaluation and setting in value of the archaeological groups of the Valley of Vilcabamba, they will represent a valuable contribution in the recovery of our cultural patrimony that impacts directly in the invigoration of our cultural identity; in consequence, the enormous quantity of attractiveness will allow to diversify the tourist offer, avoiding the overloads in the attractiveness traditionally visited in the Region.

 

The Corridor Vilcashüaman - Choquequirao  

The Archaeological Group of Choquequirao, is inserted a wider space of the South Peruvian Macro, among the departments of Ayacucho, Apurímac and Cusco. The corridor Vilcashuamán - Choquequirao is a natural geographical space of the Andean south region that integrates the Center Archaeological of pre-Hispanic civilizations, civil and religious architectural monuments, sanctuaries of natural forests, Andean high lagoons, flora and fauna native, attractive landscapes and cultural manifestations, along diverse ecological floors and populations today in extreme poverty.

The historical-cultural connotation of the civilizations Wari, Chanka and Inca, developed along the geographical space; economic and social, and the described resources, they configure a great potential for the development of the tourism. 

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